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West Nile Virus
History: WNV was first isolated from a woman in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937. The ecology was characterized in Egypt in the 1950s. The virus became recognized as a cause of severe inflammation of the spinal cord and brain in elderly patients during an outbreak in Israel in 1957. Equine disease was first recorded in Egypt and France in the early 1960s. The first recorded appearance of WNV in North America was in 1999, with encephalitis reported in humans and horses.Geographical Distribution: WNV has been described in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, west and central Asia, Oceania (subtype Kunjin), and most recently, North America. Recent outbreaks of WNV encephalitis in humans have occurred in Algeria in 1994, Romania
West Nile Virus
(WNV) is reported to be transmitted in the US by multiple species of mosquitoes,
in addition to the Culex species. The
It is believed that WNV is spread to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. A mosquito becomes infected by biting a bird that carries the virus. Most researchers believe that you or your child cannot get WNV from a person who has the disease. WNV is not thought to spread by person-to-person contact such as touching, kissing, or caring for someone who is infected.
WNV is primarily a bird disease, and as many as 10,000 crows died from the spreading infections in metropolitan New York in 2000. The deaths of numerous horses in the area also were attributed to the virus, which causes inflammation of brain tissues.Most people who become infected with WNV from a mosquito bite will not become ill. If they do become ill with WNV, most cases are mild. Symptoms include fever, headache, and body aches, often with skin rash and swollen lymph glands. More severe infections may manifest themselves with a headache, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, and paralysis.
This disease is only fatal in 3% to 15% of all cases and the highest fatality rates are in the elderly and those with impaired immune systems. The elderly, young and those with weakened immune systems are most vulnerable.
yourself from mosquito bites:
You can further
reduce your chances of getting ill by protecting yourself from mosquito
bites. To avoid mosquito bites, eliminate standing water sources from
around your home, always wear repellent and long-sleeved clothes when
you're outdoors, and stay indoors during peak mosquito hours
West Nile Fever (West Nile virus) - Online Treatment AdvisorTreatment of West Nile Virus Encephalitis with Intravenous Immunoglobulin
Serological Assays, TaqMan Real-time PCR, RT-PCR, NASBA Reactions.
Tissue, Cerebrospinal fluid are most suitable during post-mortem exam. Vent,
Throat, and blood sample should be submitted for general screening.
to shipping samples should be stored at 4 C. Samples must be shipped overnight
in a transport medium.
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